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Solutions Search - Monitor, Control and Protection

High Efficiency Solar MPPT Battery Charger Using LT8611 and AD5245

Perry Faubert - FAE Jul 10th 2017
Introduction Outdoor applications that use solar panels in the range of a few watts often use a microcontroller-based MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking)  function to extract the maximum power available over the full range of environmental operating conditions. Many microcontroller-based MPPT solutions designed for ...

Blog Post LTspice 


LTspice Models of ISO 7637-2 & ISO 16750-2 Transients

Dan Eddleman - Senior Applications Engineer Apr 5th 2017
Introduction Simulating the ISO 7637-2 and ISO 16750-2 transients early in the design phase of an automotive product can pinpoint issues that would otherwise come to light during electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing. If a product fails EMC testing, hardware modifications are required, project schedules suffer, and extra ...

Blog Post LTspice 


I2C Primer: What is I2C? (Part 1)

Hamza Salman Afzal - Applications Engineer Sep 2nd 2016
Introduction: The Inter-Integrated Circuit (I2C) bus is a two wire serial interface originally developed by the Phillips Corporation for use in consumer products. It is a bi-directional bus that is easily implemented in any IC process (NMOS, CMOS, bipolar) and allows for simple inter-IC communication. Connections are minimized ...

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LTspice SOAtherm Support for PCB and Heat Sink Thermal Models

Dan Eddleman - Senior Applications Engineer Sep 1st 2016
The SOAtherm model distributed with LTspice software and simplifies Hot Swap and Surge Stopper designs by verifying directly within a circuit simulation that a particular MOSFET’s Safe Operating Area (SOA) is not exceeded. This article assumes a basic understanding of the SOAtherm model. If you are not familiar with SOAtherm, ...

Blog Post LTspice 


95% Efficient at 2MHz 42V Sync Buck

Jun 24th 2016
Linear Technology’s family of high voltage synchronous step-down DC/DC switching regulators offer up to 95% efficiency. Switching at 2MHz, these low EMI parts utilize the Silent Switcher technology. Other features include spread spectrum frequency modulation, ultra-low quiescent current and are available with single, dual, ...

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Negative Voltage Ideal Diodes (Diode-OR Controllers)

Kevin B. Scott - Senior Strategic Marketing Engineer May 23rd 2016
An ideal diode (also referred to as a diode-OR controller and more generally as a PowerPath controller) is a robust, expanded functionality replacement for a discrete power diode. It consists of a MOSFET in place of the diode to provide a low voltage drop, low power dissipation switch that connects a power ...

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LTspice: Using Time-Dependent Exponential Sources to Model Transients

Mitchell Lee - Applications Engineer
Gabino Alonso - Strategic Marketing Engineer
May 15th 2016
When working with Surge Stoppers or Hot Swap Controllers, occasionally there is a need to simulate a circuit's behavior with a specified voltage or current transient. These transients are usually modeled using a double exponential waveform characterized by a peak voltage, a rise time (usually 10%–90%), a fall time to 50% ...

Blog Post LTspice 


Primer on PowerPath Controllers, Ideal Diodes & Prioritizers

Pinkesh Sachdev - Product Marketing Engineer - Mixed Signal Apr 29th 2016
Electronic systems powered by multiple DC sources are commonplace - they include handheld devices (USB port and battery), portable instruments (wall adapter and battery), and high-availability servers (main and redundant/auxiliary supply rails). Selecting the correct input supply to power the system is not a trivial ...

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Powering Altera Arria 10 FPGA and Arria 10 SoC: Tested and Verified Power Management Solutions

Afshin Odabaee - Business Manager - uModule Power Products Feb 19th 2016
Design Note DN549: Introduction FPGA development kits allow system developers to evaluate an FPGA without having to design a complete system. Figures 1 and 2 show Altera’s new 20nm Arria 10 FPGAs and Arria 10 SoCs (System-on-Chip) development boards. These boards are tested and verified by Altera, exemplifying best design ...

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Shutdown with the LT3080x Current Source Reference Linear Regulators

Kevin B. Scott - Senior Strategic Marketing Engineer
Tony Bonte - Design Manager
Jan 21st 2016
Current Source Reference Linear Regulators In many low noise applications, a linear regulator is an ideal solution for the power conversion due to its very low output voltage noise and low electromagnetic noise generation (compared to a charge pump or a switching regulator). The LT308x linear regulator family is ideal for these ...

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Power Supply Sequencing Simplified

Nathan Enger - Senior Applications Engineer Dec 7th 2015
Design Note 1037: Introduction Designing a multiple power supply system is challenging. The power supply designer’s workload multiplies with each additional supply rail. The designer must consider the dynamic environment of coordinated power supply sequencing and timing, generating power-on reset, monitoring for faults ...

Blog Post LTpowerPlay 


Using a Current Sharing Controller with Non-Redundant Supplies

Bob Smith - Sr Module Design Engineer Nov 30th 2015
Design Note 1036: Introduction The LTC4370 is a 2-supply current sharing, diode- ORing controller that uses MOSFETs to form ideal diodes. In this way, the LTC4370 can actively balance the output currents of two supplies, even those with unequal output voltages. For two unequal voltage input supplies, the forward voltage ...

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Achieving Low On-Resistance with Guaranteed SOA in High Current Hot Swap Applications

Dan Eddleman - Senior Applications Engineer
Gabino Alonso - Strategic Marketing Engineer
Jul 29th 2015
Introduction The requirement for live insertion and removal in high current backplane applications demands MOSFETs that exhibit both low on-resistance during steady state operation and high Safe Operating Area (SOA) for transient conditions. Often, modern MOSFETs optimized for low on-resistance are unsuitable for high SOA Hot ...

Blog Post Circuit LTspice 


100V Micropower Voltage Monitor Provides Flexible Monitoring of Positive and Negative Rails Simultaneously

Hamza Salman Afzal - Applications Engineer Jul 22nd 2015
Flexible supply monitoring that eases design and provides high accuracy, at a low current cost, is in high demand in today’s power conscious world. Typical supply monitors comprise a comparator with a reference, and an external divider to set the exact trip points. Unfortunately, the divider can, itself, draw more current ...

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Paralleling Linear Regulators Made Easy

Kevin B. Scott - Senior Strategic Marketing Engineer May 21st 2015
Linear regulators provide a simple, low noise solution for dc-dc regulation. However, at higher Vin-Vout differentials the low efficiency and high power dissipation of linear regulators limits the ammount of output current that can realistically be delivered.  Connecting multiple linear regulators in parallel spreads the ...

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LTC4218 12V / 100A Hot Swap Design for Server Farms

Dan Eddleman - Senior Applications Engineer Mar 18th 2015
Cultivate reliability on the farm with a properly designed Hot Swap circuit. Introduction As data centers servicing the cloud grow in speed and capacity, backplane supplies are called on to deliver currents that push the performance boundaries of Hot Swap™ components. Hot Swap solutions allow boards to be inserted and ...

Blog Post Circuit LTspice 


LTC4226 Parallel MOSFETs in Hot Swap Circuits

Dan Eddleman - Senior Applications Engineer
Gabino Alonso - Strategic Marketing Engineer
Mar 13th 2015
The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly Introduction While it is often desirable, and sometimes absolutely critical, to use multiple parallel MOSFETs in Hot Swap™ circuits, careful analysis of Safe Operating Area (SOA) is essential. Each additional parallel MOSFET added to a circuit improves the voltage drop, power loss, and ...

Blog Post Circuit LTspice 


Linduino PSM

Michael Jones - Applications Engineer Mar 12th 2015
While many engineers use a dongle and tools to configure Power System Management devices via PMBus, a growing number of designs are adding Board Management Controllers, or connecting their PMBus to an existing microcontroller or application processer. At LTC, the dongle/tool option is comprised of a DC1613 and LTpowerPlay, and ...

Blog Post Linduino 


Understanding Power Monitor Accuracy

Mark Thoren - Staff Scientist
Hamza Salman Afzal - Applications Engineer
Feb 20th 2015
Measurement of a system’s power consumption during a final factory test (before deployment into the field) is a prudent part of a test program for any product. But there is an increasing emphasis to bring this functionality into the product itself for “run-time” monitoring of power, current, supply voltage, ...

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Loop Gain and its Effect on Analog Control Systems

Simon Bramble - Field Applications Engineer
Gabino Alonso - Strategic Marketing Engineer
Jan 26th 2015
Abstract This article brings together the ideas of open loop gain, closed loop gain, gain and phase margin, minimum gain stability and shows how these parameters are interrelated in a feedback system. It examines loop gain in terms of a theoretical control system as well as practical electronic circuits, including linear regulators. Introduction Bob ...

Blog Post LTspice 


Surge Stoppers Ease MIL-STD-1275D Compliance

Dan Eddleman - Senior Applications Engineer Nov 25th 2014
Introduction A military vehicle is a tough environment for electronics, where the potential for damaging power supply fluctuations is high. U.S. Department of Defense MILSTD- 1275D sets down the requirements for electronics when powered from a 28V supply, ensuring that electronics survive in the field. MIL-STD-1275D compliance ...

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LTspice: SOAtherm Tutorial

Dan Eddleman - Senior Applications Engineer Oct 8th 2014
Verifying that a Hot Swap design does not exceed the capabilities of a MOSFET is a challenge at high power levels. Fortunately, thermal behavior and SOA may be modeled in circuit simulators such as LTspice IV® . The SOAtherm-NMOS symbol included in LTspice contains a collection of MOSFET thermal models developed by Linear ...

Blog Post Video LTspice 


Output Voltage Noise Measurements for Linear Regulators

Kevin B. Scott - Senior Strategic Marketing Engineer
Tony Bonte - Design Manager
Sep 20th 2014
Linear regulators provide a simple, non-switching DC/DC converter solution with low component count, small solution footprint and low output voltage noise. These attributes make them well-suited for applications that have power supply noise constraints, have limited board space and are averse to magnetics. Applications ...

Blog Post LTspice 


LTC3788 Generates High Voltages Using a Two-Stage Boost Converter

Victor Khasiev - Applications Engineer
Gabino Alonso - Strategic Marketing Engineer
Sep 17th 2014
Generating high voltages from low level sources is not an easy task. Engineers are facing the following problems when they try to implement single stage boost at high step-up ratios. Limitation of maximum duty cycle in boost controllers Sharp decrease in efficiency at long duty cycles High peak currents and EMI challenges ...

Blog Post Circuit LTspice 


LTspice: Modeling Safe Operating Area Behavior of N-channel MOSFETs

Dan Eddleman - Senior Applications Engineer
Gabino Alonso - Strategic Marketing Engineer
Aug 22nd 2014
Introduction Often the most challenging aspect of Hot Swap™ circuit design is verifying that a MOSFET’s Safe Operating Area (SOA) is not exceeded. The SOAtherm tool distributed with LTspice IV® simplifies this task, allowing a circuit designer to immediately evaluate the SOA requirements of an application and ...

Blog Post LTspice 


Control the Voltage of a Remote Load Over Any Length of Copper Wire

Philip Karantzalis - Senior Apps Eng Jul 8th 2014
Introduction A common problem in power distribution systems is loss of regulation due to the cable/wire voltage drop between the regulator and the load. Any increase in wire resistance, cable length or load current increases the voltage drop over the distribution wire, increasing the difference between actual voltage at the ...

Blog Post LTspice 


10A μModule Step-Down Regulator with Advanced Input and Load Protection

Yan Liang - Applications Engineer May 7th 2014
Introduction Bus voltage surges pose a danger not only to the DC/DC converter, but also to the load. Traditional overvoltage protection schemes involving a fuse are not necessarily fast enough, nor dependable enough to protect loads such as FPGAs, ASICs and microprocessors. A better solution is to accurately and quickly detect ...

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LT4321/LT4275 LTPoE++/PoE+/PoE PD Controller TechClips

Oct 24th 2013
Power over ethernet is a continuing trend in the Ethernet world. The current IEEE standard allows for up to 25.5W of PD input power. LTPoE++ is Linear Technology's solution to meet the demand for greater power with 38.7W, 52.7W, 70W and 90W power levels. Heat generated by Power Over Ethernet powered device (PD) is a design ...

Blog Post Video 


Meet Green Standards in 24VAC and 12VAC Lighting Systems: Replace Halogen Bulbs with LEDs Driven by High Power Factor, High Efficiency Converter

Keith Szolusha - Applications Engineering Section Leader Oct 17th 2013
LEDs are increasingly used in 24VAC and 12VAC lighting systems as a robust, energy efficient and high performance alternative to halogen lamps. Power converters that drive the LEDs should have a high power factor (above 90% in order to meet generally accepted green standards), should be efficient, use a minimal number of components ...

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Bench Comparison of Two Overvoltage Protection (Crowbar) Methods: MOSFET vs. Silicon Controlled Rectifier

Jason Sekanina - Power Module Design Engineer
Willie Chan - Sr PME Power Modules
Oct 10th 2013
Introduction As electronic sub-systems play a significant role in the reliable and safe operation of the overall product, adding an overvoltage protection circuit around the DC/DC step-down regulator may be advisable to prevent damage to the latest digital logic processors considering their absolute maximum voltage (<2V ...

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Active Bridge Rectifiers Reduce Heat Dissipation within PoE Security Cameras

Ryan Huff - PoE Applications Engineer Oct 1st 2013
Introduction Power over Ethernet (PoE) has been embraced by the video surveillance industry as a solution to an age-old problem: complicated cabling. For instance, a basic, traditional fixed-view security camera requires two cables: one for power (10W to 15W from a 24V AC or 12V DC), and a separate, coax cable for the video ...

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The Dreaded "File Test" on an LT4320 Ideal Diode Bridge Controller

Ryan Huff - PoE Applications Engineer
Kaung Htoo - PoE Applications Engineer
Jul 9th 2013
The LT®4320/LT4320-1 are ideal diode bridge controllers that drive four N-channel MOSFETs, supporting voltage rectification from DC to 600Hz.  See how they can be used to replace conventional diodes:     By maximizing available voltage and reducing power dissipation (see thermograph comparison below), ...

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Prevent Your Next High Flying Product Launch From Being Grounded

Willie Chan - Sr PME Power Modules May 7th 2013
A small investment in over-voltage protection for high value FPGAs, ASICs, and micro processors could pay dividends in reliability, safety and warranty costs The widening gap between the 24V-28V intermediate bus commonly found in industrial, aerospace and defense systems and the input supply voltages of modern digital processors ...

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LTM4641 TechClips - Efficiency, Output Overvoltage Protection, Overcurrent Protection and More

Afshin Odabaee - Business Manager - uModule Power Products Feb 6th 2013
The LTM4641 is a 4.5V to 38V input, 0.6V to 6V output, 10A step-down μModule® regulator with comprehensive electrical and thermal protection for loads such as processors, ASICs and high-end FPGAs. The LTM4641 μModule regulator monitors input voltage, output voltage and temperature conditions. If any user-adjustable ...

Blog Post Video 


System Monitor with Instrumentation-Grade Accuracy Used to Measure Relative Humidity

Leo Chen - Applications Engineer Jan 1st 2013
Because much can be deduced about a physical system by measuring temperature, it is by far the most electronically measured physical parameter. Selecting a temperature sensor involves balancing accuracy requirements, durability, cost and compatibility with the measured medium. For instance, because of its low cost, a small-signal ...

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